BRP-Powertrain (Rotax Aircraft Engines)
Rotax has long dominated the lighter aircraft space with a series of engines over many decades. Now, the Austrian leader is winning converts all over the aviation spectrum with its modern and potent 915iS engine.
Producing 141 horsepower from four horizontal cylinders is a sophisticated accomplishment employing turbocharging, intercooling, and fuel injection.
Able to lift the coming, new Mosaic LSA, even four seaters, 915iS has power to spare and can maintain that power up to higher altitudes.
Since 1973, BRP-Powertrain's Rotax Aircraft Engines is approaching 200,000 deliveries. Their line of 9-series four-stroke aviation engines has logged tens of million hours of successful operation with more than 50,000 units shipped. Going beyond aviation, BRP has produced more than ten million engines.
The Rotax 912ULS engine broke ground using just 83 cubic inches to provide the same 100 horsepower as the 200 cubic-inch Continental O-200 engine, for example. Along with liquid cooling, smaller displacement and reduction gear box, the Rotax 9-series design keeps the engines physically smaller yet the powerplants also weigh significantly less than other popular light aircraft engines.
Seen nearby, Rotax 912iS engine debuted in 2012. It is exceptionally fuel efficient while also offering robust power for a majority of the world's Light-Sport Aircraft. Read more about this powerplant or you can watch this video.
You may also wish to read a contrast of 915iS to 912iS flown on the same day at Rotax headquarters airfield (article was written five years ago; the 915iS is much better established now and has become a leading seller).
Bombardier Recreational Products Inc. (BRP), a privately-held company, is a world leader in the design, development, manufacturing, distribution and marketing of motorized recreational vehicles. Its portfolio of brands and products includes: Ski-Doo and Lynx snowmobiles, Sea-Doo watercraft and boats, Evinrude and Johnson outboard engines, Can-Am all-terrain and side-by-side vehicles and roadsters, as well as Rotax engines. BRP products are distributed in more than 100 countries.
Sea-Doo, Ski-Doo, Lynx, Evinrude, Johnson, Can-Am, E-TEC, Rotax and the BRP logo are trademarks of Bombardier Recreational Products Inc., or its affiliates. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Phone: (01143) 7246-6010Gunskirchen, A-4623
Splog: Aero ’23 Continued — Superpowered Niki Aviation Cruiser Gyroplane Shows Stylish Innovation
If the bright green didn’t catch your eye, the unusual placement of the propeller probably did.
Splog: Aero ’23 Day 1 — Superveloce = Superfast… Speed Propels Porto Aviation to Records & Sales
In the last couple years a rivalry erupted among companies in Europe aiming to be the fastest LSA-type aircraft*.
Splog: Aero Friedrichshafen Opens Wednesday — Intriguing Aircraft and Flying Gear Of All Kinds
Splog: Nisus Gyro “Spacecraft” — Faceted Yet Sleek, Side-by-Side, and Loaded with Cleverness
All week at Sun and Fun 2023 my eye kept drifting to a rather distinctive gyroplane.
Splog: CubCrafters Votes for Rotax — New Carbon Cub UL Model Is First-Ever 916iS Installation
CubCrafters has never made an aircraft powered by Rotax. Images accompanying this article portray their very first example using the 9-series engine in a model intended for production.
Splog: Sun ‘n Fun 2023, Day 2 — Newest Special LSA Is Actually the Oldest: Junkers A50 Junior
In a splendid professional presentation, Waco Aircraft unveiled their newest vintage-style aircraft.
Splog: Mosaic-Ready Powerplant… BRP-Rotax Surprises Sun ‘n Fun with a Powerful New Announcement
Sun ‘n Fun 2023 — Day 1
During 2023, in only three months, I’ve lost count how many airframe producers have told me a story that goes something like this…
“We (some manufacturer) offer two 100-horsepower choices: a Rotax 912ULS (carbureted) and 912iS (fuel injected), plus the new 141-horsepower 915iS (fuel injected, intercooled).
Splog: Sun ‘n Fun 2023 Day 0 — M-Squared Upgrades Breese 2 in a Major Way
M-Squared Aircraft is one of the light sector’s pioneering airframe producers.
Splog: It’s Almost Here! — Sun ‘n Fun 2023 Theme “The Magic of Aviation” and “The Island”
Whoo, Hoo! It’s almost showtime! April 2023 seems destined to finally overcome all the Covid baggage as attendees sign up in droves for Sun ‘n Fun.
Splog: “Ultra Petrel?” How Do You Make Super Petrel Even Better? Add Power And Call It “XP”
I have followed Super Petrel since before it went to Brazil* more than 20 years ago.
Splog: It Was a Very Good Year — Icon Is Back on Heading with Their A5 LSA Seaplane
Some might say Icon Aircraft has experienced a rather turbulent flight.
Splog: Come Back… Cleanly! MySky Returns with Plans to Make Flying Friendlier
Once upon a time, I was able to report three or more new Special Light-Sport Aircraft every month.
Splog: JMB Aircraft Delivered #500 of their Blazing-Fast VL3 Light Aircraft + Evolution News
Fifteen years ago, in 2007, Guisset brothers Jean-Marie and Jean-Baptiste were dealers in France and Belgium for a company then known as Aveko.
Splog: Jabiru Engines Approaching 8,000 Engines Produced — Plus, Our List Reporting Every LSA Engine
When I was a kid, I was a New York Yankees baseball fan.
Splog: Big, Beautiful, Powerful — The Highly Finished Montaer MC01 with Rotax 915iS
Pilots love airplanes (duh!). Pilots also love engines, especially when they are truly powerful.
Splog: Globetrotting By Weight Shift Trike — Adventurers Fly 100,000 Miles In An Open Cockpit
Rotax’s 9-series engines have propelled several aircraft in round-the-world flights. One major user of the Austrian powerplants is The Airplane Factory in South Africa.
Splog: First-Ever Montaer MC01 915iS to Debut at Season-Finale Aero Showcase This Weekend
When I asked “Mosaic LSA?” in the lead image of this article, was I simply being provocative?
Splog: Vickers LSA Seaplane Flew In Spring — By Fall, Wave Tested Its “Sea Legs”
One of the longest-awaited Light-Sport development projects has been Vickers Aircraft’s Wave, a sophisticated amphibious LSA seaplane.
Splog: Montaer Scores Major Flight School Order; Announces 915 Model for USA plus Electric Project
We leave the grounds of Oshkosh ghosted with images of planes that attracted major interest.
Splog: Oshkosh 2022 – Day 4… TAF’s Sling HW with Rotax 915 is a Big, Comfortable Lightplane
Somewhere, it seems like a group of light plane developers must have held a meeting and decided that low wing manufacturers needed to broaden their line to include high wings.
Splog: Oshkosh 2022 – Day 3… Build Your Own LSA-Sized Warbird, a Stunning Eye Catcher
EAA has reported that the Warbird displays (ground and flight) are the single biggest draw at EAA AirVenture Oshkosh.
Splog: Fantasy or Fantastic? Futuristic Retro? Junkers Introduces Distinctive A50 Junior
Talk about being ahead of its time, Junkers’ A50 Junior was designed to 600 kilograms / 1,320 pounds …93 years ago!
Splog: Aero Friedrichshafen 2022: Europe’s Aviation Hibernation Ended with a “Great Success!”
Our concluding report from Europe’s most interesting airshow (certainly for those interested in affordable aviation) speaks to the challenges for big event organizers in the restrictive atmosphere of Covid mandates.
Splog: Aero Friedrichshafen 2022: Take a Quick Tour of Six Innovations in Light Aviation
Sun ‘n Fun started the recreational flying season as it always does, taking place this year in the beginning of April.
Splog: Europe’s Passionate Need for Speed — JMB Enlists Turbine Power to Go Faster Yet
Over many years as an affordable aviation journalist I have learned two things.
Splog: Aero 2022 / Day 1: What’s the Buzz? Turbines on LSA + Bristell News
How about this? Among the loudest “buzz” at Aero Friedrichshafen 2022 was the introduction of turbine engines on Light-Sport Aircraft.
Splog: Vickers Wave First Flight Accomplished Successfully
Long in development to incorporate a raft of distinctive ideas, Vickers Wave took its first flight last month, mere weeks before the launch of Sun ‘n Fun 2022, which kicks off a new flying season.
Splog: Savage Norden from Zlin is the Newest Special LSA in the U.S. Fleet (#157)
Welcome to the newest Special Light-Sport Aircraft in the fleet: Savage Norden.
Splog: Flying Tecnam’s P2008 Turbo — Is a Used LSA Right for You?
Pilot, builder, owner Roger Jennings is singular in an uncommon way.
Splog: Bat Hawk: Well-Established South African Aircraft Lands in America
It’s always exciting to welcome a new entry into recreational aviation.
Splog: Wrapping Up 2021 — News Bits and Expectations for the New Year Ahead
Now that 2021 is historical and following two years of Covid uncertainty and business interruptions, many readers can breathe a sigh of relief for an better 2022.
Splog: What I’m Flying — Pilot Report on Van’s RV-12
Over the years, curious pilots have asked me what aircraft I fly.
Splog: Seeking a Higher Altitude — Flight Design’s F2 and Icon’s A5 Go for Certification
Rather loudly and persistently I beat the drum about “affordable aircraft,” but readers also enjoy learning about other aircraft.
Splog: LSA Seaplanes — Sophisticated New Entries or Established, Proven, Affordable Aircraft?
UPDATE 11/28/21 — Vickers Aircraft sent fresh images and additional comments.
Splog: Big Producer of Small Engines — Rotax Reaches a Major Production Benchmark
Two decades into the new millennia, few aviation companies can claim impressive growth.
Splog: SW-51 is Shipping Quick-Build Kits — Create Your Ultimate Mustang with Incredible Detail
North American’s World War II-era P-51 Mustang has consistently won polls of pilots asking to identify their favorite aircraft.
Splog: AirVenture Day 0: Say Good-Bye to Rotax Two-Stroke Aircraft Engines
As AirVenture Oshkosh 2021 starts, we have arrived at a long-awaited beginning to the world’s biggest airshow.
Splog: Warp Speed! — Designer Alberto Porto Says, “Make It So” with Risen SuperVeloce
Most of us would be mighty pleased to sit comfortably and gaze upon our pace-setting aircraft.
Splog: Rotax 915iS Proves a Winner — “Best Powertrain Concept in the Light-Sport Aviation Industry”
How does modern-day Rotax relate to the Wright Brothers? Here’s a trivia test for light aviation enthusiasts.
Splog: Family Flying Adventure… AirCam Enthusiasts Flock to Gorgeous Jekyll Island, Georgia.
“Winds are going to be rather sporty,” observed AirCam developer, Phil Lockwood, as he and Robert Meyer and the AirCam team finalized arrangements for another fly-out, this one to Jekyll Island (09J).
Splog: LSA Update — Finland’s ATOL Avion… Ekolot Topaz Wins Another… Fresh SW-51 Video… New FAA Reg Update Video
Summer is fast approaching and for much of the northern hemisphere, that means seaplane flying.
Splog: Flight Design Introduces CTLS GT with Rotax 914 Turbo Power
Recently I interacted with a reader, someone considering a light aircraft for purchase.
Splog: Airborne at Last — Scalewings’ Intricate and Spectacular SW-51 Achieves First Flight
This flying dream has been years in the making. Admittedly, it’s a big project, but so authentic is this 70%-scale P-51 Mustang lookalike that I think I see you already starting to drool.
Splog: Faster and Faster — Porto Aviation’s Risen Eclipses the 400 Kilometer per Hour Barrier
The appeal is obvious. What pilot doesn’t like the idea of flying faster?
Splog: Wave Theory — After Years of Thoughtful, Thorough Development, First Flight Is Getting Closer
Down under, heads are down and wrenches are wrenching. A team in New Zealand has been working for years on what might be the most sophisticated new aircraft to emerge …well, anywhere among Light-Sport Aircraft but certainly in LSA seaplanes.
Splog: Sun ‘n Fun 2021 / Reflections 2.0… Powrachute, Gyro Technic, Stick-On Autopilot, Duc Props
We continue with further coverage from the first major airshow in almost two years… THANKS to Sun ‘n Fun 2021 for helping present these interesting aircraft and more.
Splog: Sun ‘n Fun 2021 / Day 4 — Still Great 30 Years Later: Titan Aircraft’s Tornado Comes in Four Flavors
Usually, aviation journalists attending airshows seek the latest and greatest in aircraft.
Splog: Sun ‘n Fun 2021 / Day 3 — The Brazilian Invasion Continues; Montaer MC01 Has Arrived
Perhaps you knew years ago that Brazil was an aviation beehive of activity.
Splog: Sun ‘n Fun 2021 / Day 2 — Europe’s Speed Demons; Experimental Today But LSA in 2023?
Think about this: A Rotax-powered aircraft capable of high-speed cruising at 185 miles an hour?
Splog: Flying Germany’s Longtime Leader, the Affordable Comco Ikarus C42
Americans have seen Comco Ikarus‘ C42 before. At least three different importers have represented C42 versions to the U.S.
Splog: Ready for Sun ‘n Fun 2021 — Welcome the Newest SLSA: Affordable Aventura Amphibian
Affordable is a word I often hear as I explore the ever-expanding world of light aircraft.
Splog: Skyranger Nynja: Economical, Proven, Agile, Tough, Simple — Now from UK
“Nynja lifts off after a ridiculously short ground roll and soars skyward at a precipitously steep angle.
Splog: Special Light-Sport Aircraft #154 — Welcome to Montaer’s MC01 from Brazil
Welcome our newest entry to the Special LSA fleet: Montaer’s MC01.
Splog: New or Old? … Deluxe or Simple? … Quicksilver or Smithsilver? — Here Is Tri-State’s Falcon 503
One of the most successful airplane designs of all time is the Quicksilver.
Splog: Direct Fly Alto LSA — It’s Back with All its Sweet-Flying Qualities (Ghostbuster Optional)
Back when Light-Sport Aircraft were still youngsters in aviation (LSA are teenagers now), Ron Corbi imported the Direct Fly Alto 100.
Splog: Not Just Any Ultralight — Introducing Top Rudder’s Solo 103 and Ruckus
When I first reported about — and did videos about — Just Aircraft’s Part 103 entry back in 2017 and 2018, lots of readers got excited.
Splog: “Made in the USA” Now Includes Seamax Light-Sport Aircraft Seaplane from Brazil
In the earliest Light-Sport Aircraft days, nearly 70% of available models came from Europe.
Splog: Third Generation Flight Design — Flying the New F2 at Midwest LSA Expo 2020
➡️ Update 11/3/20 — A new video interview with Flight Design USA importer Tom Peghiny appears at the bottom of this article.
Splog: SilverLight Shines Brightly Among Modern Gyroplanes — All American, Available, and Modestly Priced
After thousands of articles, I’ve have heard over and over about two common ingredients sought by pilots who visit this website: Affordability and Availability.
Splog: Staring At Goat — Wild Sky’s Brutus Off-Field, Outback Weight Shift Trike Light-Sport Aircraft
If you flew better than 9,000 hours solely to give trike instruction, you would tend to develop ideas about how an aircraft can better fit the type of flying lessons you want to give.
Splog: Flight Design’s F2 Light-Sport Aircraft on Tour — Bringing the “Airshow” to the People
Although a mirror reflection of the greater global economy, many pilots are stunned that airshow after airshow has fallen to the virus.
Splog: American Ranger AR1 Gyroplane Embraces Rotax 915iS Power
You can call modern gyroplanes “wanna-be” helicopters if you want but that might miss a few important points.
Splog: A Special Light-Sport Aircraft Seaplane for the Rest of Us: Aventura SLSA 912
If you pay any attention to LSA seaplanes, you should already know about Aventura.
Splog: Racing Risen — A “Pandora’s Box” (and Lesson) About Speed Records in Light Aircraft
In our strongest month ever, April 2020, our biggest story was about the Swedish Blackwing “Speed Monster.” Pilots almost universally admire a beautiful and fast aircraft.
Splog: What’s Enough Power? Always More? Maybe Not, as Bill Canino Explains Zlin’s Shock Ultra
In the last couple months as we’ve all been struggling under the lockdowns happening across the country (and around the world), some of our best-read articles have been about going fast using the most powerful engines.
Splog: Go-Fast Mania Spreads to USA — BRM Aero’s Bristell “Speedster” with 915iS Fixed Pitch Prop
The need for speed is hard wired into humans, it seems.
Splog: Swedish “Speed Monster” — Blackwing Plus Rotax 915iS Claims New Speed Record
Five years back at my favorite airshow in Europe — Aero Friedrichshafen — I could not pass the supersleek blue and black low wing from Sweden, my father’s ancestral home.
Splog: Ultralight April 2020 — Ninth in the Vintage Series: Rans S-4/5
This first year I ever saw Randy Schlitter fly one his models at an airshow seems a hundred years ago.
Splog: Update from Vickers Aircraft and their Wave Light-Sport Aircraft Amphibian
The Coronavirus madness is far from being a U.S. problem. Naturally, we tend to focus on our own part of the world …as we must.
Splog: Virtual Sun ‘n Fun 2020 — 5 Light Aircraft You Might Have Seen in Lakeland
While I continue to worry about the cash crunch faced by two of my favorite shows, I am still driven to provide content as if those shows had occurred this year and not been postponed to 2021.
Splog: Virtual Press Conference — Flight Design Has a Fresh News on CT2020, F2, & More
As everyone on the planet knows by now, aviation has nary an airshow in sight.
Splog: Ultralight April 2020 — Second in the Vintage Series: CGS Hawk
Way back when, long before the birth of the Light-Sport Aircraft segment (in 2004), lots of us flew ultralights.
Splog: Flight Design’s “Secret Weapon” in the USA: Tom & Tom Gutmann and Airtime Aviation
How does one LSA brand rise and stay above others?
Many reasons can be introduced; all possibly valid.
Splog: Tucano 915 Kit Aircraft: Serious Engine, Serious Airframe, …Seriously Fun!
Copperstate is proving to be as valuable for the collection of Video Pilot Reports as Midwest and DeLand.
Splog: Centennial Anniversary — 100 Years of Rotax Engines
It started with a seemingly simple product. Since long before recreational aircraft arrived, the invention that launched the Rotax brand was a “rotary axle,” a freewheeling hub that advanced the then-state-of-the-art in bicycles.
Splog: Texas Aircraft in 2020 — Logs First Customer Delivery of Colt Light-Sport Aircraft
How about this for a great way to start off the new year — a brand-new airplane?
Splog: Vickers Wave Settles Engine Debate — Rotax’s 915iS is the Winner
The last airshow (DeLand) is over. Recreational aircraft across the snow belt are secured in their hangars.
Splog: Duc Propellers for Light-Sport Aircraft in the USA — Introducing 4-Blade Flash 2 Prop
“The DeLand Sport Aviation Showcase (DSAS), conducted from November 14-16, 2019 at the DeLand Municipal Airport in Florida, has completed a careful look at ticket sales, gate receipts, exhibitor numbers and other data… and is happy to report that the 2019 Showcase eclipsed the 2018 attendance by over 20%,” reported lead organizer, Jana Filip.
Splog: The Changing Face of Light-Sport Aircraft — Speed and Safety Behind Single Lever Control
In mid-October, FAA provided another update to the Light Aircraft Manufacturers Association.
Splog: Oshkosh 2019… All Done! More Great Light-Sport Aircraft Stories (and Video)
The weeklong celebration of flight known around the planet as “Oshkosh” is now history.
Splog: Aero Friedrichshafen Day 3: ELECTRIC, Hybrid on Tecnam and Comco – Battery on Horten and Bristell
More from Aero as Day 3 closes. Because of the number on display — and because several readers asked — this post will focus on electric propulsion in two distinct forms.
Splog: Sun ‘n Fun Day 3 — Lightning Fast Kit Aircraft, LSA Regulation Questions, and a Tribute
You wanna go fast? Of course you do. What pilot doesn’t want to go fast?
Splog: Breaking News — Sling TSi Will Fly Non-Stop from California to Sun ‘n Fun 2019!
This Just In!
Follow the Sling TSi LIVE tomorrow, Sunday March 31st, 2019, as the new model flies this route: KTOA – KLAL (Coast to Coast) • Torrance, California to Lakeland, Florida, a distance of 1,900 nautical miles
Intended Departure: Sunday at 4 AM Pacific • Landing Florida before 7 PM Eastern in a flight forecast to take “under 12 hours” at a predicted speed of 160 knots (184 mph), at altitude.
Splog: Lockwood Aircraft’s AirCam “Gen-3” — More Seats, More Power, More Fun
Let me admit right up front: I am a big fan of AirCam.
Splog: Copperstate Day 2 — Big Crowds Plus Flying Sling TSi with Rotax 915 Power: Superb!
I have to admit my pleasant surprise. This tie-up of Copperstate and Buckeye Air Fair might be exactly what is needed to generate a major show in the Southwestern USA.
Splog: Speedy Sling TSi Powered by Rotax 915 — News from The Airplane Factory USA
When Rotax debuted their new 915iS engine at an Oshkosh press conference, Sling designer Mike Blyth raced forward at the end of the conference to closely examine the new power plant.
Splog: DeLand Showcase 2018 Off to a Good Start; Industry Players Generally Upbeat as Year Closes
Day One of the third running of DeLand Showcase is complete.
Splog: Tecnam Aircraft — Here, There, and Everywhere, It Seems
This week kicks off the truly gigantic trade show known by its sponsoring organization’s abbreviation: NBAA, or in common lingo, “Enn, Bee, Double A.” While not taking up the extensive terra firms of Oshkosh, NBAA actually has more paying exhibitors.
Splog: Gyroplanes Are Big Overseas — First Market Share Info for the USA
Updated September 26, 2018 — This article has been updated to include more producers.
Splog: Tecnam the Magnificent — from Light-Sport Aircraft to Well Beyond
The big Italian company that LSA enthusiasts know very well through models such as P92, Sierra, and P2008 has a large and growing presence in global aviation.
Splog: Flying the Rotax 915iS Aircraft Engine — Comparing to 912iS
April has been busy… starting with a week of Sun ‘n Fun; then a gathering of LSA seaplanes at my home airport the day after; followed by three days of Aero Friedrichshafen in Germany (it runs four days but I had to miss the first); concluding with a journalists-only event at Rotax Aircraft Engines.
Video review: Searey Equipped with Single Lever Control
Yes, yes, I know — in-flight adjustable props are not permitted on U.S.
Splog: Importing to America — Another Way; Two Light-Sport Aircraft to be Built in USA
When most pilots think of imports, they assume a foreign manufacturer builds an aircraft in another country, finds a U.S.
Splog: Rotorvox C2A Gyroplane Lands in USA; Will Debut at Sun ‘n Fun 2018
Besides LSA seaplanes, one area of furious development (and sales) is gyroplanes, the term modern industry prefers to “gyrocopter,” which was actually a branded name used since the days of Igor Benson.
Splog: First Rotax 915iS Engines Arrive in USA; Shipped to Customers
As the 2018 flying season launches, a long-awaited powerplant from Rotax Aircraft Engines is beginning to arrive in the USA and to be shipped on to customers for installation.
Splog: Jumping Off the Ground F-A-S-T and Landing Super Short — Fun!
Sebastien Heintz of Zenith Aircraft in Mexico, Missouri is one of the more vigorous promoters in light aviation.
Splog: Four-Stroke Merlin Performs Well in First Flights — See It at Sebring!
Along with many others, I’m sure, I’m presently en route from Daytona Beach to Sebring, Florida as the 2018 or 14th running of the U.S.
Splog: After Winning Certification… Here Comes Rotax Aircraft Engines’ 915iS
What a great Christmas present for the Rotax Aircraft Engine team members (lower photo).
Splog: 450 Remos Light Aircraft Delivered in 20 Years
In the late ’90s, an earlier iteration of Remos Aircraft delivered their first aircraft, a G-3 Mirage, originally designed by the very talented Lorenz Kreitmeyer.
Splog: Rotax 915 iS Light Aircraft Engine: Testing & Award
Surely all readers know that Rotax-brand engines dominate the light aircraft landscape.
Splog: Vessel of South Korea and Flight Design Offer KLA-100
Recently, Vessel Co., Ltd., and Flight Design made a joint announcement after debuting their new KLA-100 low-wing, light aircraft at Aero Friedrichshafen 2017.
Splog: Searey Kit Aircraft Gets More Push… Simply!
Could Light-Sport Aircraft, light kit aircraft, and even ultralights benefit from in-flight adjustable propellers?
Splog: Rotax Training at Dueling Airshows
How is it that Rotax so dominates the supply of engines to light aircraft?
Splog: California Power System Announces Rotax Classes
Rotax Maintenance Classes — If you are a professional or wanna-be pro in the maintenance or overhaul of Rotax engines, you must take factory-approved training.
Splog: Latest and Greatest LSA from Oshkosh 2016
In a show as vast at EAA’s AirVenture Oshkosh, it is presumptuous to attempt covering everything of interest.